Critical Thinking Resource Center Part 2
Part 2: Topics covered in class with video and other links.
I. Material about Lewis Carroll and Alice in Wonderland
A. Written material
- Lewis Carroll has a North American fan club with a nice website….
- Naturally, he has a British fan club with a website…
- He also designed a logic game…
- Here is a book on Alice in Wonderland as a logical text…
- Two scholars have written a paper suggesting that Carrollâ€™s book be used as a template for teaching logic to young students…
- Great performances stage version of Alice in Wonderlandâ€¦video.
- The Nations documentary on the book and its authorâ€¦video.
II. Material about logic puzzles
A. Written material: Logic puzzles are often included in standardized tests such as the LSAT. The eminent symbolic logician Raymond Smullyan has written some popular and Â Â Â entertaining puzzle books:
- The Godelian Puzzle Book…
- What is the Name of this Book?…
- The Lady or the Tiger…
- The Riddle of Scheherazade…
- Alice in Puzzle-Land…
- Logic-Puzzles.org lecture on using grids to solve logic puzzlesâ€¦video.
III. The nature of critical thinking.
A. Definitions of critical thinking:
- Prof. Meegan on the definition of critical thinkingâ€¦video.
- TeachPhilosophy on the definition of critical thinkingâ€¦video.
- Prof. Dewald on the nature of critical thinkingâ€¦video.
- Prof. Harrison on the definition of critical thinkingâ€¦video.
- ProCon.org pitch for the value of critical thinkingâ€¦video.
B. Mental models:
C. Lectures on critical thinking problems on standardized tests
- Veritas Prep on how to handle GMAT critical reasoning problemsâ€¦video.
A. Definition of â€œstatementâ€:
- PurdueGMI lecture on propositions v. sentencesâ€¦video.
B. Simple v. compound:
C. Compound statements.
V. Question logic.
BÂ Loaded question:
A. The concept of an argument:
- Fast Philosophy lecture on the concept of an argumentâ€¦video.
- Online Philosophy lecture on the concept of an argumentâ€¦video.
- Wireless Philosophy on the concept of argumentâ€¦video
- Prof. Tuggy on the concept of argumentâ€¦video.
- Argument vs. mere assertionâ€¦ Monty Pythonâ€™s skit on the argument clinicâ€”clip…
B.Â Identifying single arguments:
C.Â Diagramming multiple arguments:
D. Â Argument v. non-argument:
- Prof. Sadler on arguments vs. non-argumentsâ€¦video.
E. Â Deductive v. inductive:
- Wireless Philosophy on validityâ€¦video.
- Fast Philosophy on deductive vs. inductive arguments and deductive validity vs. deductive soundnessâ€¦video.
F.Â Truth and Validity:
VII. Clarity of expression.
A. Verbosity and Jargon
- Hurley Write lecture on avoiding verbosityâ€¦video.
- Communications teacher Simon on what is and isnâ€™t jargonâ€¦video.
- Hurley Write lecture on avoiding clichÃ©s and jargonâ€¦video.
- BBC short lecture on understanding jargonâ€¦video.
- A classic skit on the â€œretro encabulatorâ€ device being describedâ€¦video.
- Tech Jargonâ€”Unmasked and Mockedâ€¦video.
- Prof. Handke on types of vagueness in natural languageâ€¦video.
- Profs. Rich and Cline on vagueness and the Sorites paradoxâ€¦video.
C. Loaded language
- ChangeMyMind lecture on loaded language and name-callingâ€¦video.
D. Understatement and overstatement
- Letâ€™sTalk lecture on understatement vs. exaggerationâ€¦video.
E. Fallacies of ambiguity.
- Fast Philosophy lecture on vagueness and ambiguityâ€¦video.
- TeachPhilosophy on the difference between vagueness and philosophyâ€¦video.
- Prof. Handke on the nature and types of ambiguityâ€¦video.
- Prof. Koehl on fallacies of ambiguityâ€¦video.
- Carneades.org lecture on the fallacy of equivocationâ€¦video.
- The great comedians Abbot and Costello had a classic Vaudeville routine, called â€œWhoâ€™s on Firstâ€, an extended take-off on Lewis Carrollâ€™s use of â€œNobodyâ€ as a name,Â which they performed for years on radio, and later TV… clip.
- Jimmy Fallon, Billy Crystal, and Jerry Seinfeld did a remake of the Abbot/Costello routine not long back…clip.
- Wikipedia has a nice discussion of the use of ambiguity in other, earlier comedy routines…
- Carneades.org lecture on the composition fallacyâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on the fallacy of compositionâ€¦video.
- sample ads with accent: ad1;
- Carneades.org on the division fallacyâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on the fallacy of divisionâ€¦video.
VIII. Fallacies of relevance
A. Fallacies of relevance as a group
- Prof. Koehl on the fallacies of relevance part 1â€¦video.
- Prof. Koehl on the fallacies of relevance part 2â€¦video.
B. Shifting the burden of proof/appeal to ignorance/argumentum ad vericundiam
- TeachPhilosophy on the fallacies of appeal to ignorance and shifting the burden of proofâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on appeal to ignoranceâ€¦video.
C. Attacking the person/appeal to hate/ad hominem argument
- Wireless Philosophy lecture on the nature of the ad hominem argumentâ€¦video.
- Wireless Philosophy lecture on the varieties of ad hominem argumentsâ€¦video.
- CriticalThinkerAcademy lecture on abusive ad hominemâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on abusive ad hominemâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on circumstantial ad hominemâ€¦video.
- CriticalThinkerAcademy lecture on tu quoque ad hominemâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on tu quoque/inconsistency ad hominemâ€¦video.
- CriticalThinkerAcademy lecture on guilt by association ad hominemâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on guilt by association ad hominemâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on the genetic fallacyâ€¦video.
D. Appeal to fear/argumentum ad baculum
- Prof. Sadler on appeal to fearâ€¦video.
E. Appeal to pity/argumentum ad misericordiam
F. Appeal to the crowd/argumentum ad populum
- CriticalThinkerAcademy lecture on appeal to the crowdâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on appeal to the crowdâ€¦video.
- Wireless Philosophy on appeal to the crowdâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on appeal to traditionâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on appeal to common practiceâ€¦video.
G. Ignoring the issue/ignoratio elenchii
- CriticalThinkerAcademy lecture on straw man argumentsâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler lecture on straw man argumentsâ€¦video.
- CriticalThinkerAcademy lecture on red herring argumentsâ€¦video.
- CriticalThinkerAcademy lecture on slippery slope argumentsâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on slippery slope argumentsâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on
- Family Guy clip…
A. Cognitive dissonance theory
- Khan Academy lecture on cognitive dissonance theoryâ€¦video.
- ETSU Online lecture on cognitive dissonanceâ€¦video.
- Festingerâ€™s original experiment showing cognitive dissonance theoryâ€¦video.
- Khan Academy lecture on cognitive dissonanceâ€¦video.
B. The psychology of conspiracy theories.
- Penn and Teller on conspiracy theories clip…
- DocZone report on conspiracy theories part 1â€¦video.
- DocZone report on conspiracy theories part 2â€¦video.
- DocZone report on conspiracy theories part 3â€¦video.
- Prof. Brotherton on the psychology of conspiracy theoriesâ€¦video.
- Prof. Douglas on the psychology of conspiracy theoriesâ€¦video.
X. Â Observation
A. Research on false memory
- Elizabeth Loftus â€œlost in the mallâ€ experiment clip…
- Loftus and Palmer on false memoriesâ€¦video.
- Loftus interview about her work clip…
- Loftus TED talk on the fiction of memoryâ€¦video.
- A BBC report on the use of altered pictures to implant false memories clip…
- Stossel report on childrenâ€™s suggestibilityâ€¦video.
A. Eye-witness testimony.
- CBS 60 Minutes on errors in eyewitness testimony part I…
- CBS 60 Minutes on errors in eyewitness testimony part II…
- The infamous McMartin Preschool molestation case and biased interrogationâ€¦video.
- Humorous observation testâ€¦video.
- Classic movie about jurors on a murder trial trying to arrive a verdict by evaluating the testimony they have heard…video.
B. Expert testimony
- CriticalThinkingAcademy lecture on appeals to authorityâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sadler on fallacious appeal to authorityâ€¦video.
A. The statistics of sampling.
- Statistics Learning Center lecture on sampling techniquesâ€¦video.
- Statistics Learning Center lecture on variation and sampling errorâ€¦video.
- Statistics Learning Center lecture on p valuesâ€¦video.
- Statistics Learning Center lecture on important statistical conceptsâ€¦video.
A. The fallacy of accident
- Carneades.org lecture on accidentâ€¦video.
A. Reasoning by analogy in cognition
- Prof. Hofstadter lecture on analogy as the core of cognitionâ€¦video.
B. Analogical arguments
- Prof. Rogacs on generalization vs. analogical argumentsâ€¦video.
- Online Philosophy lecture on analogical argumentsâ€¦video.
- Prof. Sinnott-Armstrong on analogical argumentsâ€¦video.
C. Analogical reasoning in the law and ethics
- Prof. Kim on analogical reasoning in the lawâ€¦video.
- Prof. LaBossiere on analogical reasoningâ€¦video.
D. Analogical puzzle-solving for standardized tests.
- Alex Avila on SSAT analogical test prepâ€¦video.
- Prof. Ellis on solving analogical problemsâ€¦part 1 video.
- Prof. Ellis on solving analogical problemsâ€¦part 2 video.
- Prof. Ellis on solving analogical problemsâ€¦part 3 video.
- Prof. Ellis on solving analogical problemsâ€¦part 4 video.
- Prof. Ellis on solving analogical problemsâ€¦part 5 video.
- Prof. Ellis on solving analogical problemsâ€¦part 6 video.
A. Types of causal claim
- Wireless Philosophy on necessary vs. sufficient conditionsâ€¦video.
B.Â Causal inference
- Freakonomics channel lecture on correlation and causalityâ€¦video.
- Prof. Walter on correlation vs. causalityâ€¦video.
- Correlation vs. causation short lectureâ€¦video.
C. False cause fallacy (post hoc ergo propter hoc):
- Wireless Philosophy lecture on post hoc ergo propter hocâ€¦video.
- The Big Bang Theory clip…
- The West Wing clip…
- Cartoon clip…
D. Statistical causal inference
- Penn and Teller on the dread fear of vaccinations and autism clip…
- Khan Academy lecture on the Wakefield study of vaccination and autismâ€¦part 1 video.
- Khan Academy lecture on the Wakefield study of vaccination and autismâ€¦part 2 video.
- PBS report on the vaccine warsâ€¦video.
XVII. Decision theory
A. Rational choice model
- Khan Academy on rational choice theoryâ€¦video.
- Alanis Business Academy on rational choice modelâ€¦video.
- Audiopedia lecture on rational choice theoryâ€¦video.
- UCTV interview with Nobelist Gary Becker on applying rational choice model to social phenomena (crime, family, addiction, discriminationâ€¦.)â€¦video.
- University of Chicago celebration of the lifer and work of Gary Beckerâ€¦video.
B. Kahneman and behavioral decision theory
- Short Yale lecture on Nobelist Kahnemanâ€™s prospect theoryâ€¦video.
- APS interview with Daniel Kahnemanâ€¦video.
- NPR interview with Kaneman on loss aversionâ€¦video.
- Sakler talk by Kahneman on overconfidence and thinking we knowâ€¦video.
- Richard Thaler on behavioral economics (Google talk)â€¦video.
- YaleCourses Nobelist Shiller on behavioral financeâ€¦video.
C. Gigerenzer on heuristics and rationality
- Gigerenzer on the history of decision theoryâ€¦video.
- Gigerenzer on when heuristics are superiorâ€¦video.
- Gigerenzer on the role of intuitionsâ€¦video.
- Gigerenzer on evolutionary theory of decision-makingâ€¦video.
- Gigerenzer on the mind as an adaptive toolboxâ€¦video.
- Gigerenzer on why he got into decision theoryâ€¦video.
- Gigerenzer TEDx Talk on risk literacyâ€¦video.
XVIII. Sales manipulation
A. Psychological mechanisms
- Interview with persuasion guru Robert Cialdini on NPR clip…
- PBS documentary â€œThe Persuadersâ€â€¦video.
B. On the authority mechanism:
- Interview with Stanley Milgram regarding his early 1960s famous experiment clip…
- BBC recreation of the classic Milgram experiment clip…
C. Deceitful sales pitches
- Penn and Teller episode on multi-level marketing/pyramid schemes clip…
- Frontline story on Bernie Madoffâ€™s Ponzi scheme clip…
- CNN report on Madoff clip…
- Religious pitches/affinity scams TV expose clip….
- Affinity scams/religious pitch part I of Canadian TV expose clip…
- Part II of the Canadian TV expose clip…
- Part III of the Canadian TV expose clip…
- A â€œWayneâ€™s Worldâ€ spoof of subliminal/product endorsement ads clip…
- Distraction devices: a Crazy Eddie commercial from the 1980s…clip.
XIX. Political manipulation
A. Political marketing techniques
- Ries report on branding candidatesâ€¦video.
- Spotting propaganda techniquesâ€¦classic video.
- HowStuffWorks lecture on 7 propaganda techniquesâ€¦video.
B. Famous practitioners of propaganda
- Academy of Ideas lecture on Gustave Le Bonâ€¦video.
- Le Bon The Crowd audio bookâ€¦audio.
- ReasonTV lecture on the power of Nazi propagandaâ€¦video.
- HistoryTruths lecture on Joseph Goebbelsâ€¦video.
- History Channel documentary on Goebbelsâ€¦part 1 video.
- History Channel documentary part 2â€¦video.
- History Channel documentary part 3â€¦video.
- History Channel documentary part 4â€¦video.
- Leninâ€”agit-prop trainsâ€¦video.
- HowStuffWorks documentary on Edward Bernaysâ€¦part 1 video.
- HowStuffWorks documentary on Edward Bernaysâ€¦part 2 video.
- HowStuffWorks documentary on Edward Bernaysâ€¦part 3 video.
C. Attack and warm/fuzzy ads
- Mr. Show send-up of political adsâ€¦video.
- The infamous â€œDaisy Girlâ€ attack ad from 1964 presidential raceâ€¦video.
XX. Science vs. pseudo-science
A. General cognitive issues
- Michael Shermer on why people believe weird thingsâ€¦video.
- Shermer on the believing brainâ€¦video.
- James Randi on how a professional magician investigates claims of the paranormalâ€¦video.
- James Randiâ€™s 1991 show on exposing paranormal claimsâ€¦video.
- Randi debunking faith healingâ€¦video.
B. Science vs. pseudo-science